Anime is colloquial for japanese animation and refers speciffically to animation produced in Japan. The earliest commercial Japanese animations date to 1917. A charaacteristic art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of cartoonist Osamu Tezuka and spreading in the following decades, developing a large domestic audience. In addition to original works, anime are often adaptations of japanese comics (mangas), light movies or video games.
Anime is a diverse medium with distinctive production methods that have adapted in response to emergent technologies. It combines graphic art, characterization, cinematography, and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques.The anime industry consists of over 430 production companies, including major studios like Studio Ghibli, Sunrise, and Toei Animation. Since the 1980s, the medium has also seen international success with the rise of foreign dubbed and subtitled programming. As of 2016, Japanese anime accounted for 60% of the world's animated television shows